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First letter of the words

look and circle the first letter of the words

1 four-letter words

2 De profundis (Psalm 130 so called from the first two words in the Latin version)

3 first letter on the coin is so rubbed that I cannot read it

4 four-letter words (pl)

5 the first letter on the coin is so rubbed that I cannot read it

6 use four-letter words

7 four-letter words

8 four-letter words

9 first-letter cursor navigation

10 look about

11 look up

If you don’t know this word, look it up in the dictionary.

1). He put aside his newspaper and looked up. 2). Look up this information in the encyclopedia. Look up the new words in the dictionary. Look them up.

12 a four-letter word

I never knew of a place to beat Alderson for frustration. It was enough to provoke the girls to use all the four-letter words they did! Remembering my father’s colorful vocabulary, it was occasionally hard for me to refrain from doing likewise. (E. Flynn, ‘The Alderson Story’, ch. XVIII) — Никогда я не видела другого места, столь же отупляющего и гнетущего, как Олдерсон. Недаром наши девушки так щедро осыпали его всеми известными им ругательствами. Вспоминая довольно выразительный лексикон моего отца, я сама порой с трудом удерживалась от крепкого словца.

13 read

is less than size in header вчт. объем считанных данных меньше указанного взаголовке backward

a piece of music муз. разобрать пьесу;
the bill was read парл. законопроект был представлен на обсуждение check

чтение;
время, проведенное в чтении;
to have a quiet read почитать в тишине

в сочетаниях) начитанный, сведущий, знающий, образованный;
he is poorly read in history он слабо знает историю

изучать;
he is reading law он изучает право;
to read for the Bar готовиться к адвокатуре;
read off разг. объяснять, выражать his face doesn’t

off его лицо ничего не выражает;
read out исключать из организации;
read up специально изучать;
to read up for examinations готовиться к экзаменам it is intended to be

. это надо понимать в том смысле, что. to read one’s thoughts into a poet’s words вкладывать собственный смысл в слова поэта

толковать;
объяснять;
my silence is not to be read as consent мое молчание не следует принимать за согласие nondestructive

гласить;
the passage quoted reads as follows в цитате говорится

with заниматься (с кем-л.) ;
to read (smb.) a lesson сделать выговор, внушение ( кому-л.) to

a piece of music муз. разобрать пьесу;
the bill was read парл. законопроект был представлен на обсуждение to

a riddle разгадать загадку;
to read the cards гадать на картах

) читать;
to read aloud, to read out (loud) читать вслух;
to read (smb.) to sleep усыплять( кого-л.) чтением

as follows гласит следующее

снимать показания (прибора и т. п.) ;
to read the electric meter снимать показания электрического счетчика;
to read (smb.’s) blood pressure измерять кровяное давление

изучать;
he is reading law он изучает право;
to read for the Bar готовиться к адвокатуре;
read off разг. объяснять, выражать to

(smb.’s) mind (или thoughts) читать чужие мысли;
to read (smb.’s) hand (или palm) гадать по руке

изучать;
he is reading law он изучает право;
to read for the Bar готовиться к адвокатуре;
read off разг. объяснять, выражать it is intended to be

. это надо понимать в том смысле, что. to read one’s thoughts into a poet’s words вкладывать собственный смысл в слова поэта to

oneself hoarse (stupid) дочитаться до хрипоты (одурения) ;
to read to oneself читать про себя

) читать;
to read aloud, to read out (loud) читать вслух;
to read (smb.) to sleep усыплять (кого-л.) чтением his face doesn’t

off его лицо ничего не выражает;
read out исключать из организации;
read up специально изучать;
to read up for examinations готовиться к экзаменам to

a riddle разгадать загадку;
to read the cards гадать на картах

снимать показания (прибора и т. п.) ;
to read the electric meter снимать показания электрического счетчика;
to read (smb.’s) blood pressure измерять кровяное давление to

between the lines читать между строк;
to read the time (или the clock) уметь определять время по часам( о ребенке) to

oneself hoarse (stupid) дочитаться до хрипоты (одурения) ;
to read to oneself читать про себя

) читать;
to read aloud, to read out (loud) читать вслух;
to read (smb.) to sleep усыплять (кого-л.) чтением his face doesn’t

off его лицо ничего не выражает;
read out исключать из организации;
read up специально изучать;
to read up for examinations готовиться к экзаменам his face doesn’t

off его лицо ничего не выражает;
read out исключать из организации;
read up специально изучать;
to read up for examinations готовиться к экзаменам

with заниматься (с кем-л.) ;
to read (smb.) a lesson сделать выговор, внушение (кому-л.) the

s вчт. прочитанное

показывать (о приборе и т. п.) ;
the thermometer reads three degrees above freezing-point термометр показывает три градуса выше нуля

14 word

вчт. слово найденное ассоциативным поиском banner

it rather differently я сказал бы это, пожалуй, иначе;
a beautifully worded address прекрасно составленная речь

девиз;
лозунг;
big words хвастовство binary

вчт. основное слово call

(часто pl) речь, разговор;
can I have a word with you? мне надо поговорить с вами check

First letter of the words

I know this forum may be encounter this age old problem several times, but I just want to understand how to properly execute the code required to accomplish this task.

Right now, I want to limit the use of my code to the following libraries:
-iostream
-cctype
-string
-iomanip

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Also, I would like to avoid creating any user defined functions.

I understand that I will require functions such as toupper[] to convert the letters to uppercase letters, a for loop to evaluate each word of the sentence, and something like a counter to only capitalize the first letter of the word being evaluated.

This is currently what my code looks like:

I understand that by identifying «title» as a char variable, it will only return the first character of the word that’s read, despite using getline to read the whole user input.

So far I’ve been able to build several complex programs, but for some reason I get hung over by the use of strings, so I would appreciate any pointers.

Just a hint to begin with

a new word starts with a space before, so find the space and capitalize the next

PUN INTENDED! I kid.

Anyway, we all get hung up. To add to programmer007:

Don’t forget stringstreams exist as well. As much «fun» as .get() and isspace() is (please note the sarcasm) and assuming your library limits are self-imposed and you’re open to adding , I think you’ll find the ability to stream a getline() to extract individual words will drastically simplify your project. After all, .get()ing or iterating your way to an isspace() so you can give your next char to toupper()? It’ll work, but.

This is part of the story. Depends whether you want to modify the sentence or create a separate title.

Hope this helps

Programmer007, I figured that out, thanks to kemort. The next order of business is to lowercase all other letters within a word.

Yawzheek, you were quick to catch that haha!

brown ogum, I am examining and testing out your program.

Thanks y’all for the help. I’ll let you know if I figure it out.

kemort, so I’ve heard, and it makes sense to do so just to have uniform formatting to begin with.

brown ogum, I like the style of your program. I tried the condition where if(str.at(i) != ‘ ‘; I thought I could add in a str.at(i) = str.at(i) + ‘a’ — ‘A’; within this block, thinking it would do the opposite of the equation in the first if statement and make each character before the ‘ ‘ and after the first character a lowercase character. I guess that doesn’t work lol

Well, might as well join in the fun:

A «state machine» is a logical construct that has discrete «states»; a memory about its past. The machine changes state on «events».

Lets assume that our «machine» has three possible states:
A) Previous character was not part of a word.
B) Previous character was an initial.
C) Previous character was part of a word.

The current character too has three types:
1) isalpha()
2) isspace()
3) other

Now we have nine combinations, which each might require different treatment.
For example A+1 means that we are looking at an initial, so:
— change state to B
— toupper()

On the other hand, C+1 is just a continuation of a word, so state remains C and tolower().

The machine should be in state A before the first character of input.

There are many ways to implement the concept.

kemort, thanks! This is on point, since it’s basically one line of code and looks clean. Plus it works how it should! I didn’t think it could look so simple. Like I said, understanding strings and chars, even arrays, is not my forte compared to that of scripting for mathematical computations and fundamental output of information.

Duoas, haha might as well right? I like to get a look at different styles of coding. Gives me a wider perception of how to engage a problem, as I don’t really look at how my peers script their codes. Thanks for the input!

Стратегия написания делового письма
методическая разработка по английскому языку (11 класс) на тему

Стратегия написания делового письма

Учитель английского языка

им. И.И.Тарасенко ст.Выселки

Деловое письмо.

Деловые письма пишутся по установленной форме, часто на бланках.

Деловое письмо делят на следующие части:

  1. в правом верхнем углу обычно ставится штамп компании с ее адресом (1-я строка – название фирмы, 2-я строка – адрес фирмы: номер дома, название улицы, город, почтовый индекс, страна) или ваш адрес, если вы пишете на имя компании;
  2. под штампом дата письма;
  3. в левой части наименование и адрес получателя письма;
  4. тема письма ( для того, чтобы сразу стало понятно, о чем данное письмо и кому и в какой отдел его нужно переслать);
  5. вступительное обращение;
  6. основной текст письма;
  7. заключительная формула вежливости;
  8. подпись;
  9. указание на приложение.

Вступительное обращение пишется следующим образом:

  1. если вы не знаете фамилию человека или людей, к которым вы обращаетесь, письмо обычно начинается со слов DearSir,DearSirsилиGentlemen.
  2. Если вы пишите женщине и не знаете ее фамилию, обычным является обращение DearMadam.
  3. Если вы знаете фамилию адресата, обычным обращением к мужчине является

Dear Mr. Smith, к женщине Dear Miss Smith (незамужней женщине), Dear Mrs. Smith (замужней женщине), Dear Ms. Smith (если вы не знаете, замужем она или нет. Эта форма приобретает все более широкое распространение).

В деловом письме в обращении НЕЛЬЗЯ писать ИМЯ после слов Mr., Mrs, Ms.

Заключительная часть письма – подпись – зависит от обращения. Если вы начали письмо с обращения Dear Sir, Dear Sirs Dear Madam или Gentlemen, в конце письма перед подписью вы должны поставить слова Yours faithfully.

Если вы начали письмо с обращения Dear Mr. Smith, Dear Miss Smith, Dear Mrs. Smith, Dear Ms. Smith обычным окончанием будут слова Yours sincerely.

Язык написания делового письма отличается от стиля личного письма. В деловых письмах язык более официален и строг; не принято употребление сокращенных глагольных форм, в то время как конструкции со страдательным залогом используются гораздо чаще для

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деловой переписки характерно употребление стандартных выражений, используемых для подтверждения получения деловых писем, для выражения просьбы, при сообщении о посылке каталогов или документов, при ссылке на документы и т.д. эти стандартные выражения необходимо выучить.

Основной текст письма

  1. Письмо-запрос, жалоба и т.п.

В начале делового письма указывается причина написания данного письма. Обычным началом могут служить выражения I am writing in connection with…

I am writing to enquire about… Если вы пишете очередное письмо по одному и тому же вопросу, то началом могут являться выражения Further to

With reference to…

Обычным началом является

Thank you for your letter of 12 January ( Обратите внимание на предлог of), In reply/ answer/ response to your letter of 12 January…

В сообщениях об исполнении просьбы употребляются следующие выражения:

In accordance with your request…, According to your request…, As requested (by you/ in your letter).

При извещении о посылке документов, каталогов и т.п. обычно используются следующие выражения: We are pleased/ glad to send you…, We enclose…, We send enclosed

Деловое письмо обычно делится на абзацы. Деление подчеркивается словами:

First of all, Firstly, Secondly, Finally

Не забывайте о словах, связывающих отдельные части предложений, и вводных словах:

Moreover, In addition to it

So, As a result, Therefore

However, On the one hand… On the other hand, In contrast

In conclusion, To sum up, On the whole

Не забывайте о вежливых словах и выражениях:

I would be very pleased…

Will you be so kind to inform me…

I will be obliged if you could …

I would appreciate if you could…

Заключительная формула вежливости включает в себя такие выражения, как:

I look forward to hearing from you soon. If you require any further information please do not hesitate to contact us.

225 Phillips Boulevard

4 December, 2010

Dear Miss Smith,

Further to our telephone conversation, I would like to confirm the following arrangements for your arrival.

Your group arrives on 3 January at 2.15 p.m. You will be met at the railway station by our representative. He will take you to the hotel in Moscow (the address and hotel conveniences are enclosed).

If you require any further information, please do not hesitate to contact us.

Yours sincerely, Kate Smirnova

Подготовка к ЕГЭ.

Упражнения для подготовки к написанию делового письма.

Задaние 1

Write the dates according to the rules given above.

1 st March, 1947; 15/12/1944; 3/10/1971 (USA); 27/10/1980; 6/2/1978 (UK);

5/7/2002 (USA); 2 nd April, 1994; 9/3/1942 (USA)

Задaние 2

Match the opening of the letter on the left with its closing on the right.

Change the capitalization or case of text

You can change the capitalization, or case, of selected text in a document by clicking a single button on the Home tab called Change Case.

Change case

To change the case of selected text in a document, do the following:

Select the text for which you want to change the case.

Go to Home > Change case .

Do one of the following:

To capitalize the first letter of a sentence and leave all other letters as lowercase, click Sentence case.

To exclude capital letters from your text, click lowercase.

To capitalize all of the letters, click UPPERCASE.

To capitalize the first letter of each word and leave the other letters lowercase, click Capitalize Each Word.

To shift between two case views (for example, to shift between Capitalize Each Word and the opposite, cAPITALIZE eACH wORD), click tOGGLE cASE.

To apply small capital (Small Caps) to your text, select the text, and then on the Home tab, in the Font group, click the arrow in the lower-right corner. In the Font dialog box, under Effects, select the Small Caps check box.

To undo the case change, press CTRL+ Z.

To use a keyboard shortcut to change between lowercase, UPPERCASE, and Capitalize Each Word, select the text and press SHIFT + F3 until the case you want is applied.

See also

Change case

To change the case of selected text in a document, do the following:

Select the text for which you want to change the case.

Go to Home > Change case .

Do one of the following:

To capitalize the first letter of a sentence and leave all other letters as lowercase, click Sentence case.

To exclude capital letters from your text, click lowercase.

To capitalize all of the letters, click UPPERCASE.

To capitalize the first letter of each word and leave the other letters lowercase, click Capitalize Each Word.

To shift between two case views (for example, to shift between Capitalize Each Word and the opposite, cAPITALIZE eACH wORD), click tOGGLE cASE.

To apply small capital (Small Caps) to your text, select the text, and then on the Format menu, select Font, and in the Font dialog box, under Effects, select the Small Caps box.

Small Caps shortcut key: ⌘ + SHIFT + K

To undo the case change, press ⌘ + Z .

To use a keyboard shortcut to change between lowercase, UPPERCASE, and Capitalize Each Word, select the text and then press fn+ SHIFT + F3 until the style you want is applied.

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See also

PowerPoint for the web supports changing case. See the procedure below.

Word for the web doesn’t support changing case. Use the desktop application to open the document and change text case there, or else you can manually change the casing of text in Word for the web.

Select the text you want to change.

Go to Home > More Font Options > Change case.

Урок 3 Unit 5 Рабочей тетради
ГДЗ English Кузовлев 9 класс

1. Vocabulary. Here is some information about John who wanted to get a job.
1) Which of the two sentences contains a phrasal verb? Choose the sentence, underline the verb with the particle and translate the verbs.
0
a He turned up too early. Пришел
b He usually turns up his trouser legs. Подворачивает (штанины)
1
a Put the applications in the box.
b He has put in an application for a visa.
2
a I thought he was at home, but found him out.
b I found out his secret.
3
a He likes to go into long explanations.
b He had to go into hospital.
4
a He looked through the open door.
b He looked through his exam paper.
5
a He is very quiet. What is he thinking about?
b Can he think of something interesting to spend the time?
6
a He put his best suit on.
b He put his best suit on the sofa.

2) What did John do to get a job? Rewrite the sentences below using pronouns instead of the underlined phrases.
Grammar hint
Phrasal verbs
Fill in the form. — Fill it in.
Look through the documents. Look through them.

0) He filled in the application.
He filled it in.
1) He looked through the job advertisements in newspapers.
2) He had to go into all his reasons for choosing this job.
3) He put in his applications together with the letters.
4) He’s been looking out for a new job for six months.
5) He put on his best clothes. —
6) He thought over his friend’s suggestion.
7) He thought of his new image.
8) He made up a story about his childhood.
9) He found out some information on the website.

2. Vocabulary. It is not easy to get a job.
Replace the underlined words (or word combinations) with the phrasal verbs from the box in the correct form.
Research the job
(0) Discover what skills and knowledge the employers are likely to be (1) looking for trying to find and (2) think of consider your skills.
Research yourself
(3) find out Discover how this job fits into your career plan. (4) look through Examine your information and (5) think over seriously consider possible answers to problem areas — have an explanation for poor exam results, for example. But don’t (6) go into explain unnecessary details and don’t (7) make up invent information. Make sure you know what job applications are like and have all the information you need to (8) fill in write what is necessary in these applications. (9) read through Study your CV and think about the questions an interviewer might ask and (10) come up with have an idea about some answers.
Go to bed early the night before in order (11) get up to get out of bed early next day. Try to look your best at the interview. (12) put on Get dressed in a smart suit.
(0) Find out

3. Vocabulary. Match the words from the first and the second columns to form meaningful expressions, then find the correct translation and complete it.
(Переводить слова не нужно)
1 to get on
2 to get on with
3 to look for
4 to look out for
5 to make up
6 to make up
7 to put on
8 to turn off
9 to turn on
10 to turn out
11 to turn up

A a nice flat
В a very interesting story
С as an old man
D early
E fine
F in the examination
G smart clothes
H the classmates
I the computer and check the mail
J the criminal
К the lights when you leave

а включать
b выдумывать
с выключать
d загримировать
e искать
f ладить
g надевать
h оказаться
I подыскивать
j преуспеть
к приходить

4. Vocabulary. The first day on a new job is like the first day of school.
What should you know on your first day at work? Complete the sentences with the verbs that fit in the correct form.
Do some research to (0) find out all you can about your new employer and the company.
Plan what you’re going to (1) put on during the first week of work. Choose the suit in which you look your best. Before going to sleep the night before, (2) look through things that you will need for your first day at work. Be sure to have a pen to (3) fill in those necessary forms.
If you (4) turn up on time, it will make a good impression on your employer. (5) Think of clever questions about the work, even when you may already know the answers.
At home write by name all the workers you can remember. You can continue 6) filling in your list on Day Two.
That first day of a new job usually (7) turn out to be physically and emotionally tiring. But each day after will get easier and easier.

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